There are 4 types of resources available at the start of the game. Yes, that means that more might come later based on technologies.
All resources can be traded.
Generated by your finance stat and a few locations. Finance resources can be spent on any action involving personnel, or can be traded with any other corporation for goods and services. Once used they are removed from the game.
When used, they add 1 point per resources to the action. They can be spent on any action.
They do not count as food/power supplies/building materials, they merely add to the points in a project.
Generated by locations. These resources represent your ability to build new structures or vehicles. They may also be required for certain special actions.
When used, they add 2 points per resource to the action but must be spent on actions involving building new structures/locations or improving an existing location.
Biological Resources (also called food)
Generated by locations. The resources represent your ability to feed your personnel. If you have as much food as personnel in a location, that personnel will perform at 25% efficiency bonus.
Some actions may require a certain amount of biological resources to complete.
Generated by locations. These represent power, but also useful data on anomalies. They are vital for enhancing your RnD projects.
When used, they add 2 points per resource to the action, but must be spent on actions involving research and development.
Energy resources will also be need to utilise certain advanced technologies. If you want to build a Death Star, for example, you will need a sufficient stockpile of energy resources in order to fire it.